Spectroscopic and thermodynamic studies on the complexation of trivalent curium with inorganic ligands at increased temperatures; Spektroskopische und thermodynamische Untersuchungen zur Komplexierung von trivalentem Curium mit anorganischen Liganden bei erhoehten Temperaturen. The subject of the present investigation is the complexation of trivalent actinides at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work is to broaden the comprehension of the geochemical processes relevant for the migration of radionuclides in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository.
Depending on the disposed nuclear waste, the temperature in the direct vicinity of a nuclear waste repository may reach up to C. The result is a distinct change of the geochemistry of the actinides. Many of these processes have already been studied in detail at room temperature.
Yet, data at elevated temperature are rare. However, a comprehensive long term safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository requires the precise thermodynamic description of the relevant geochemical processes at room as well as at elevated temperatures. The present work is focused on the investigation of the complexation of trivalent curium Cm III with different inorganic ligands at elevated temperatures.
Due to its outstanding spectroscopic properties, Cm III is chosen as a representative for trivalent actinides. The experiments with nitrate, sulphate and chloride were carried out in a custom-built high temperature cell, enabling spectroscopic studies at temperatures up to C. The Cm III -fluoride-system was studied in a cuvette quartz glass in the temperature range from 20 to 90 C. The results of the TRLFS studies show a general shift of the chemical equilibrium towards the complexed species with increasing temperature.
For instance. Interaction of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol with high carbon iron filings: Reaction and sorption mechanisms. However, reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6 -TCP was negligible. No transformation of 2-CP or 4-CP to phenol was observed. We observed this object in and The analysis of the light curves indicates complex and variable temporal spectra.
Using wavelet analysis we have found evidences for changes on time scales of hours in the dataset. The temporal spectra obtained during are quite different from the results of the previous year. The modulations in the light curve are more noticeable and the temporal spectra present a higher number of modulation frequencies. One peculiar characteristic is the presence of a variable harmonic structure related to one of these modulation frequencies.
This complex photometric behaviour may be explained by a more complicated unresolved combination of modulation frequencies, but more likely due to a combination of pulsations of the star plus modulations related to interaction with a close companion, maybe indicating a disc. However, these characteristics cannot be confirmed from single site observations.
The complex and variable behaviour of NGC needs the WET co-operation in order to completely resolve its light curve. Computational investigation on 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene crystal. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP level were performed on crystalline 2,4,6 -trinitrochlorobenzene.
The carbon, oxygen, and chlorine atoms make up the narrow lower energy bands, while the nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms make up the higher energy bands. Besides, the contributions of these atomic orbitals to the frontier bands are somewhat well-proportioned. An anisotropic impact on the bulk makes the electron transfer from chlorine to its neighbor carbon atom and from nitrogen atoms to oxygen atoms. The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be Abstract Copyright , Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store. The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period.
As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times.
In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, curium intake by shredder operator at Building Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.
Final report. On July 2, at approximately A. A third operator Worker 3 provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area hot area from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area cold area. At Approximately A. Sometime between A. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges.
An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately A. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium Organization and Management Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation. Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels.
Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, Np, Am and Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium. However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead.
Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples. So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method.
In this study Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha gamma spectrometry using Np as a spike, and Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code.
Electric resistivity of americium and curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of americium metal after self-irradiation. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk Am metal were measured between and 4. The room temperature resistivity was found to be The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity.
The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons. The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4. A saturation resistivity of After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and K.
The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested. The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium , which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at Comparison with theoretical models were made.
Alpha spectrometry analysis was used for activity determinations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. Using a sequential procedure the first step was Pu isolation by an anion exchange column followed by an Am and Cm separation of U and Fe by a co-precipitation with oxalic acid. The precipitate was used for americium and curium separation of strontium by using a TRU resin extraction chromatography column.
Due to their chemical similarities and energy difference it was seen that the simultaneous determination of Am, Cm and 24 3 , Cm isotopes is possible using the Am as tracer, once they have peaks in different region of interest ROI in the alpha spectrum. In this work it was used tracers, Pu, Am, Cm and U, for determination and quantification of theirs isotopes, respectively.
Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium, americium and curium During the past 10 years about glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves.
Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of Am, Am and Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes.
A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary.
Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. In addition, 2,4,6 - trichlorophenol may form during the treatment of phenol containing industrial wastewater with hypochlorite or during the disinfection of drinking-water sources.
The removal of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol is significant because of its high toxicity, carcinogenic properties and persistence . In this study, the adsorption of 2,4,6 -tr Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Cm, Cm, and Cm. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs are widely detected in human tissues.
However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol 2,4,6 -TBP in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo.
The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6 -TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. Industrial waters in coal pyrolysis process, synthetic chemicals and oil and gas process contain phenol derivatives that are dangerous to the environment and needs to be removed, one of them is 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol.
Optimal graphene loading of 0. Test results showed that addition of 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol would subsequently increased 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenol conversion and enhanced hydrogen production linearly. The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values K 0 of 1.
The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6 -TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine.
All rights reserved. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides. The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of CmP and CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4. The fcc NaCl-type samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms.
Alekseev, A. This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for U, m Am, Cm, Cm, Cm and Cm done at this spectrometer. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA and JIA reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian.
Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR- for 4 days.
Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density.
These effects of APR- were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR- also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR- suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have Complete dissipation of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting.
We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an.
Environmental concentrations and toxicology of 2,4,6 -tribromophenol TBP. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view. We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical.
Moreover, it is used as a pesticide but also occurs as a natural product of some aquatic organisms. Due to its many sources, 2,4,6 -tribromophenol is ubiquitously found in the environment. Nevertheless, not much is known about its toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. It is also unclear which role the structural isomer 2,4,5-tribromophenol and several degradation products such as 2,4-dibromophenol play in the environment.
Due to new flame retardants that enter the market and can degrade to 2,4,6 -tribromophenol, this compound will remain relevant in future years - not only in aquatic matrices, but also in house dust and foodstuff, which are an important exposure route for humans. If Tribal construction standards are consistent with or Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene. The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene DATB or 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 ,-trinitrobenzene TATB by: a reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0.
TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN levansucrase Y S immobilized on chitosan beads. LsRN-Y S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2. A maximum of 8. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish Danio rerio to 2,4,6 -tribromophenol affects reproduction.
The bromophenol 2,4,6 -tribromophenol TBP is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health Structural and spectroscopic parameters of 2,4,6 -trimethylbenzamide, using DFT method.
Conformational analysis of 2,4,6 -Trimethylbenzamide was carried out. The geometric parameters bond length, bond angle and tortion angle of the most stable conformer were calculated and the Infrared and Raman frequencies of fundamental modes were determined. Calculated values were compared with the experimental ones. All calculations were carried out with the Gaussian03 and GaussView3. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene, TATB. A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino- 2,4,6 -trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described.
Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives. Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated, yet it remains as one of the highest priority pathogens due to its potential as a biological weapon.
The majority of the US population would be vulnerable in a smallpox outbreak. Additionally, SIGA has conducted Phase I and II clinical trials to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ST- , bringing us to our current late stage of clinical development. This article reviews the need for a smallpox therapeutic and our experience in developing ST- , and provides perspective on the role of a smallpox antiviral during a smallpox public health emergency.
Contribution of filamentous fungi to the musty odorant 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in water supply reservoirs and associated drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the distribution of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole 2,4,6 -TCA in two water supply reservoirs and four associated drinking water treatment plants DWTPs were investigated.
The 2,4,6 -TCA concentrations were in the range of 1. To determine the contribution of filamentous fungi to 2,4,6 -TCA in a full-scale treatment process, the concentrations of 2,4,6 -TCA in raw water, settled water, post-filtration water, and finished water were measured. The results showed that 2,4,6 -TCA levels continuously increased until chlorination, suggesting that 2,4,6 -TCA could form without a chlorination reaction and fungi might be the major contributor to the 2,4,6 -TCA formation.
Meanwhile, twenty-nine fungal strains were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular biological methods. Of the seventeen isolated fungal species, eleven showed the capability to convert 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP to 2,4,6 -TCA. There was a significant variation in the capability of different species to generate 2,4,6 -TCA. The results from the proportions of cell-free, cell-attached, and cell-bound 2,4,6 -TCA suggested that 2,4,6 -TCA generated by fungi was mainly distributed in their extracellular environment.
In addition to 2,4,6 -TCA, five putative volatile by-products were also identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These findings increase our understanding on the mechanisms involved in the formation of 2,4,6 -TCA and provide insights into managing and controlling 2,4,6 -TCA-related problems in drinking water.
In this study, we showed that administration of the antiviral compound ST- to rabbits by oral gavage, once daily for 14 days beginning 1h postexposure p. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos.
In vitro susceptibility to ST- and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades. The susceptibility of these strains to both drugs was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, extracellular virus's quantification in the presence of ST- and one-step growth curve in cells treated with CDV. ST- strongly inhibits the production of extracellular virus for all isolates in concentrations as low as 0. Impedance spectroscopy of tripolar concentric ring electrodes with Ten20 and TD pastes.
Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper, we measured the impedance on both tripolar concentric ring electrodes and standard cup electrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS using both Ten20 and TD electrode paste.
Furthermore, we applied the model to prove that the model can predict the performance of the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes TCRE that are used to record brain signals. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. TCA entsteht durch mikrobielle Umsetzung von Chlorphenolen. The aryl groups at the 2- and 6-positions are derived from ketones, while benzyl amine plays the dual role of providing an aryl functionality at the 4-position of pyridine as well as being a nitrogen donor.
Synthesis of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenyl hydrazones and their inhibitory potential against glycation of protein. This study thus identified a novel series of antiglycation agents. A structure-activity relationship has been studied, and all the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe.
In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information. The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices.
In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is totally necessary and our traditional workspace it is now being asked how reproducible patient to patient, device to device are the delivered doses new tasking? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort.
Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use. These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in cork bark. Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants.
During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods years. Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal.
However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation EC No. We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. Furthermore, their formation as unintentional by-products during the laboratory synthesis of BTBPE from 2,4,6 -TBP and 1,2-dibromoethane in the presence of sodium carbonate has also been investigated.
Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme.
The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components.
For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components.
The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry. Adsorption of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene on carboxylated porous polystyrene microspheres. Large-pore-size nm polystyrene PSt microspheres were carboxylated with phthalic anhydride PA through Friedel-Crafts acetylation to study the adsorption of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT on this material from aqueous solution.
The scanning electron microscope SEM images and mercury porosimetry measurements MPM of the microspheres showed that the pore structure was unchanged during the reaction. High adsorption capacity As shown by the adsorption isotherm, the adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation, indicating heterogeneous adsorption process. Towards the island of superheavy stability - Prompt spectroscopy of Fm and Rf nuclei.
It therefore provides the ultimate anchor points for nuclear models. This region also lies on the path of the alpha-decay chains of the super-heavy elements. This region represents the limit of today's spectroscopic capabilities. It therefore requires technological developments in order to overcome these limits. My thesis focuses on various aspects of the spectroscopy of trans-fermium nuclei. I took part in the development of the TNT2D digital acquisition cards for germanium detectors.
I validated their use on the gamma-ray spectrometer JUROGAM during an in-beam experiment and demonstrated the gain compared to an analogue acquisition system. These tests were part of the developments needed to secure a study of the prompt spectroscopy of Rf. The preparation of this experiment also lead me to work on the development of a 50 Ti beam. For that purpose, I studied and tested the use of titanium organo-metallic compounds compatible with the MIVOC technique.
In parallel, I studied the use of metallic and oxide titanium pellets with an inductive oven newly developed at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In addition to these developments, I had the opportunity to study the in-beam prompt spectroscopy of Fm at the University of Jyvaeskylae. The measurements yielded a rotational band built on the ground state of Fm.
A spatio-kinematic study of the interaction of the planetary nebula NGC with the interstellar medium. Evidence for the deceleration effect was found in the leading edge of the nebular shell, possibly due to its interaction with the interstellar medium.
Further, we show that. Preparation and characterization of molecularly-imprinted magnetic microspheres for adsorption of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions. Magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres MMIS were successfully prepared by suspension polymerization, and then as-prepared MMIS were used as adsorbents for selective recognition of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP from aqueous solutions.
Then batch mode of binding experiments was used to determine the equilibrium, kinetics and selectivity recognition. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data better than did the Freundlich model, and the maximum adsorption capacity on MMIS was about 1.
Kinetics behaviors of MMIS were well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the reusability performance of MMIS showed about Makii, H. Visual detection of 2,4,6 -trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal. Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array MICA was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red.
And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles MICs were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. Monodisperse nm in diameter molecularly imprinted colloidal particles MICs for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template.
The limit of detection LOD of the sensor was 1. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array MICA changed from green to red with an 84 nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20 mM. The sensor response time was 3 min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6 -trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol. Evaluation of the cardiovascular system by digital subtraction angiography in patients.
Usefulness of intravenous digital subtraction angiography DSA was examined in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Our results indicate that DSA is the safe, simple and useful method to obtain the diagnostic quality image of the cardiovascular system, especially, of the occulsive arterial disease, the aortic aneurisma, the renovascular stenosis and the cardiac function of postmyocardial infarction, even in aged patients. Degradation of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by P.
Full Text Available Degradation of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT, a nitroaromatic explosive found in the soil and ground water, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in vitroexperiments. Treatment of TNT in supernatant samples taken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from agitated vessels was followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC. These findings clearly indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be used in bioremediation of TNT contaminated sites.
Phototransformation of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene: Sensitized by riboflavin under different irradiation spectral range. The effect of different spectral region of sunlight on TNT phototransformation in the absence or presence of riboflavin was also investigated by using optical filters with cut-off at or nm. The concentration of riboflavin in the phototransformation of TNT was optimized.
Concentration of riboflavin and TNT was 1. The rates of phototransformation of TNT under natural sunlight in the presence or absence of riboflavin were conformed to initial pseudo-first-order rate equation. The photolysis half life of TNT in the presence of riboflavin was The results indicate that riboflavin mediates TNT sensitized-phototransfomation under natural sunlight or near-UV-vis light.
Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides. Makris, Konstantinos C. The efficiency of vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides in removing 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene TNT from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds TNT , thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake.
The primary objectives of this study were to: i characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and ii determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity 1. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly p 2,4,6 -Trichlorophenylhydrazine Schiff bases as DPPH radical and super oxide anion scavengers. Syntheses of thirty 2,4,6 -trichlorophenylhydrazine Schiff bases were carried out and evaluated for their in vitro DPPH radical and super oxide anion scavenging activities.
The compounds 17, 28, 18, 14, 8, 15, 12, 2, 29, and 7 exhibited IC50 values ranging between 4. Selected compounds have shown a varying degree of superoxide anion radical scavenger activity and their IC50 values range between The compounds 28, 8, 17, 15, and 14, showed IC50 values between High uptake of 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation? Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT.
Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L -1 for 8 d.
Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. E-mail: dibyendu. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly p Hybrid treatment strategies for 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol degradation based on combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and AOPs.
Utilization of hybrid treatment schemes involving advanced oxidation processes and hydrodynamic cavitation in the wastewater treatment forms the prime focus of the present work. The initial phase of the work includes analysis of recent literature relating to the performance of combined approach based on hydrodynamic cavitation HC for degradation of different pollutants followed by a detailed investigation into degradation of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP.
The degradation of the priority pollutant, 2,4,6 -TCP, using combination of HC based on slit-venturi used as the cavitating device, ozone and H 2 O 2 has been investigated. The effect of operating pressure bar and initial pH have been investigated for the degradation using only HC.
Cyclic voltammetry: a tool to quantify 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in aqueous samples from cork planks boiling industrial process. Chloroanisoles, namely 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole, are pointed out as the primary responsible of the development of musty off-flavours in bottled wine, due to their migration from cork stoppers, which results in huge economical losses for wine industry.
A prevention step is the detection of these compounds in cork planks before stoppers are produced. Mass spectrometry gas chromatography is the reference method used although it is far beyond economical possibilities of the majority of cork stoppers producers. In this work, a portable cyclic voltammetry approach was used to detect 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole extracted from natural cork planks to the aqueous phase during the cork boiling industrial treatment process.
Analyses were carried out under ambient conditions, in less than 15 min with a low use of solvent and without any sample pre-treatment. The proposed technique had detection 0. For blank solutions, without 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole addition, a concentration in the order of the quantification limit was estimated 1.
Also, 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole contents in the aqueous samples determined by this novel approach were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS correlation coefficient equal to 0. So, since this novel approach is a fast, low-cost, portable and user-friendly method, it can be an alternative and helpful tool for in-situ industrial applications, allowing accurate detection of releasable 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole in an earlier phase of cork stoppers production, which may allow implementing more effective cork treatments to reduce or avoid future 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole.
The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state CVT theory with the small curvature tunneling SCT correction over a wide temperature range of — K. The characterization of the sensor was studied by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques.
The results showed that the current responses of 2,4,6 -TCP greatly enhanced due to the high catalytic activity and enrichment capability of composites. Further more, the modified electrode was successfully applied to detect the level of 2,4,6 -TCP in tap water samples with excellent sensitivity.
The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process.
The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. Solid-state structural properties of 2,4,6 -trimethoxybenzene derivatives, determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data in conjunction with other techniques.
Structural properties of 2,4,6 -trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4,6 -trimethoxybenzyl alcohol and 2,4,6 -trimethoxyacetophenone have been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data, using the direct-space Genetic Algorithm GA technique for structure solution followed by Rietveld refinement. Structural similarities and contrasts within this family of materials are elucidated. The work illustrates the value of utilizing information from other sources, including spectroscopic data and computational techniques, as a means of augmenting the structural knowledge established from the powder X-ray diffraction data.
Polane, J. The p, t reactions on 56 Fe and 58 Ni initiated by The reaction process is described in terms of simultaneous and sequential neutron transfer. For all five final states studied the sequential process competes strongly with simultaneous transfer of a neutron pair.
Theoretical values for the spectroscopic amplitudes were derived from shell-model wavefunctions; these seem to give a reliable description of the reaction process. Comparing the structure with published data of similar compounds shows that the Ge—O bonds are covalent and the Ge—N bond is coordinated. Immune responses to the smallpox vaccine given in combination with ST- , a small-molecule inhibitor of poxvirus dissemination. Grosenbach, Douglas W.
The re-emerging threat of smallpox and the emerging threat of monkeypox highlight the need for effective poxvirus countermeasures. Currently approved smallpox vaccines have unacceptable safety profiles and, consequently, the general populace is no longer vaccinated, leading to an increasingly susceptible population. ST- , a small-molecule inhibitor of poxvirus dissemination, has been demonstrated in various animal models to be safe and effective in preventing poxviral disease.
This suggests Removal of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol from a solution by humic acids repeatedly extracted from a peat soil. Humic acid HA is one of the major components of soil organic matter. It strongly affects the sorption behavior of organic and inorganic contaminants in soils. To obtain a better understanding of the interactions of contaminants with HA, a repeated extraction technique has been applied to a peat soil to obtain HA fractions with varying aliphaticity and aromaticity, which were subsequently correlated to the sorption properties of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol TCP.
HA fractions were extracted repeatedly using an alkaline solution and each HA fraction was separated into two portions with an air-drying or re-suspending denoted as RSHAs process. Solid-state 13 C NMR and elemental analysis demonstrated that the aromaticity and polarity of HAs decreased with extractions.
Kinetic results indicated that air-dried HAs exhibited two-step first order sorption behavior with a rapid stage followed by a slower stage. The slower sorption is attributed to the diffusion of 2,4,6 -TCP in the condensed aromatic domains of HAs. For air-dried HAs the sorption capacity K oc was weakly correlated with the chemical compositions of HAs.
Compared with the results of air-dried HAs with their counterparts of RSHAs, it is therefore concluded that air-drying may alter the structure of HAs through artificially creating a more condensed domain in HAs. The structural alternation may result in an incorrect interpretation of the relationship between sorption capacity and chemical composition of HAs and a misjudgment of the transport behavior of 2,4,6 -TCP in soils and sediments.
Hemin immobilized into metal-organic frameworks as an electrochemical biosensor for 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol. Hemin immobilized into copper-based metal-organic frameworks was successfully prepared and used as a new electrode material for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the resultant composites.
Due to the interaction between the copper atom groups and hemin, the constrained environment in Cu-MOF acts as a matrix to avoid the dimerization of enzyme molecules and retain its biological activity. Under optimum experimental conditions, the sensor showed a wide linear relationship over the range of 0.
The relative standard deviations were 4. Enhancement of microbial 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene transformation with increased toxicity by exogenous nutrient amendment. The enhanced TNT transformation of C. This result indicates that the increase in TNT transformation by C.
Consistently, TNT transformation was effectively enhanced when C. Thus, effective enhancement of TNT transformation via the coordinated inoculation of the nutrient-responsive C. Although the TNT transformation was significantly enhanced by C.
Our results suggest that exogenous nutrient amendment can enhance microbial TNT transformation; however, additional detoxification processes may be needed due to the increased toxicity after reduced TNT transformation. Development of a cellular biosensor for the detection of 2,4,6 -trichloroanisole TCA.
Chromatographic and electrochemical methods are currently used for the determination of TCA, however its detection at low concentrations remains a technical challenge. The sensor measured the electric response of cultured membrane-engineered fibroblast cells suspended in an alginate gel matrix due to the change of their membrane potential in the presence of the analyte. Membrane-engineered cells were prepared by osmotic insertion of 0. The BERA-based sensor was able to detect TCA in a few minutes min at extremely low concentrations 10 -1 ppt , thus demonstrating higher sensitivity than the human sensory threshold.
In addition, the assay was quite selective against other haloanisoles and halophenols structurally related to or co-occurring with TCA. Finally the sensor was tested against real white wine samples from cork soaks. Therefore, this novel biosensor offers new perspectives for ultra-rapid, ultra-sensitive and low-cost monitoring of TCA presence in cork and wine and possibly also other food commodities.
Extensive biodegradation of TNT 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was observed. At an initial concentration of 1. The addition of glucose 12 days after the addition of TNT did not stimulate mineralization, and, after 18 days of incubation with TNT only, about 3. Mineralization of [ 14 C]TNT absorbed on soil was also examined. When the concentration of TNT in cultures both liquid and soil was adjusted to contamination levels that might be found in the environment, i.
These results suggest that this fungus may be useful for the decontamination of sites in the environment contaminated with TNT. Degradation of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol with peroxymonosulfate catalyzed by soluble and supported iron porphyrins. Typical reaction medium contained a 4. The reaction was performed at ambient temperature. After the second cycle, the conversion of TCP dropped to Gas phase detection of explosives such as 2,4,6 -trinitrotoluene by molecularly imprinted polymers.
Fast, reliable and inexpensive analytical techniques for trace detection of explosive components are in high demand. Our approach is to develop specific sensor coating materials based on molecularly imprinted polymers MIPs. The best method to purify the porous beads was Soxhlet extraction followed by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction SFE with sc-CO2 at mild conditions bar, 50 degrees C. Preliminary screening experiments were performed for five different monomers and three different solvents acetonitrile, chloroform and dimethylformamide.
Direct measurements of the mass attachment, respectively frequency decrease of the coated QCMs during vapour treatment showed a TNT-uptake of about pg per microg MIP per hour. Results look worthy for further studies. Biodegradation of 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation. Gomez-De Jesus, A.
CP , Mexico, D. Mexico ; Galindez-Mayer, J. Mexico ], E-mail: cmayer encb. For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6 -trichlorophenol 2,4,6 -TCP , a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation PB-ALR was constructed.
Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 -TCP.
Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp. Efficacy of tecovirimat ST- in nonhuman primates infected with variola virus Smallpox. Fleck, Bull. World Health Organ. Safe and effective countermeasures, particularly those effective after exposure to smallpox, are needed. Currently, SIGA Technologies is developing the small-molecule oral drug, tecovirimat previously known as ST- , as a postexposure therapeutic treatment of orthopoxvirus disease, including smallpox.
Tecovirimat has been shown to be efficacious in preventing lethal orthopoxviral disease in numerous animal models G. Yang, D. Pevear, M. Davies, M. Collett, T. Bailey, et al. Quenelle, R. Buller, S. Parker, K. Keith, D. Hruby, et al. Agents Chemother. Sbrana, R. Jordan, D. Hruby, R. Mateo, S. Xiao, et al. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.
Design and characterization of a mapping device optimized to collect XRD patterns from highly inhomogeneous and low density powder samples. We report on the development of a device designed to improve X-ray Powder Diffraction data acquisition through mapping coupled to a rotational motion of the sample. The device and procedures developed aim at overcoming the experimental issues that accompany the analysis of inhomogeneous samples, such as powders , dust or aerosols deposited on a flat substrate.
Introducing the mapping of the substrate on which powders are deposited and at the same time the rotation, we may overcome drawbacks associated to inhomogeneous distributions such as ring-like patterns due to the coffee stain effect generated by the evaporation of a solution. Both particulate samples have been deposited on polycarbonate membranes from ultra-dilute solutions. Data show that this approach makes possible to collect XRD patterns useful to identify mineral fractions present in these low density samples.
Analysis of pulsed-neutron powder diffraction patterns of the icosahedral quasicrystals Pd3Siu and AlCuLiMg three alloys as twinned cubic crystals with large units. The low-Q peaks on three pulsed-neutron powder patterns total, U differential, and Pd differential of the icosahedral quasicrystal Pd3SiU have been indexed on the basis of an assumed cubic structure of the crystals that by icosahedral twinning form the quasicrystal.
The primitive unit cube is found to have edge length It is suggested that the unit contains eight complexes in the beta-W positions, plus some small interstitial groups of atoms, with each complex consisting of a centered icosahedron of 13 clusters, each of atoms with the icosahedral structure found in the body-centered cubic crystal Mg32 Al,Zn In this work, a new and facile dry printing method was developed for the direct fabrication of superhydrophobic patterns based on silica nanoparticles.
Mixtures of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and toner powder were printed on paper and polymer sheets using a commercial laser printer to produce the superhydrophobic patterns. The mixing ratio of the toner powder for the laser printer to hydrophobic silica was also investigated to optimize both the printing quality and the superhydrophobicity of the printed areas.
The proper mixing ratio was then used to print various superhydrophobic patterns , including triangular, square, circular, and complex arrangements, to demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces with different patterns can be fabricated in a few seconds without any post-processing. The research described here opens the possibility of rapid production of superhydrophobic surfaces with various patterns.
Ultimately, the obtained findings may have a significant impact on applications related to self-cleaning, control of water geometry and position, fluid mixing and fluid transport. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image. Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us.
When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup.
We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.
Analysis of tablet compaction. The continuum-based analysis of tableting makes use of an elasto-plastic model, which incorporates the elements of yield, plastic flow potential, and hardening, to describe the mechanical behavior of microcrystalline cellulose over the range of densities experienced during tableting. Linear elasticity is assumed with the elastic parameters, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio dependent on the relative density. The calibration techniques were developed based on a series of simple mechanical tests including diametrical compression, simple compression, and die compaction using an instrumented die.
The friction behavior is measured using an instrumented die and the experimental data are analyzed using the method of differential slices. The constitutive model and frictional properties are essential experimental inputs to the finite element-based model described in the companion article. Copyright Wiley-Liss, Inc. Cork industries generate a considerable amount of solid waste during their processing. Its management implies a problem for companies that should reconsider its reuse for other purposes.
In this work, an analysis of pelletizing of granulometric separation powder , which is one of the major wastes in cork industries and which presents suitable properties as an raw material for its thermal use, is studied. However, its characteristic heterogeneity, along with its low bulk density which makes its storage and transportation difficult are restrictive factors for its energy use.
Therefore, its densified form is a real alternative in order to make the product uniform and guarantee its proper use in boiler systems. Thus, the cork pellets from granulometric separation powder in the study met, except for ash content specification, the specifications in standard European Norm EN-Plus B for its application as fuel for domestic use. Palosz, B. Fundamental limitations, with respect to nanocrystalline materials, of the traditional elaboration of powder diffraction data like the Rietveld method are discussed.
A tentative method of the analysis of powder diffraction patterns of nanocrystals is introduced which is based on the examination of the variation of lattice parameters calculated from individual Bragg lines named the "apparent lattice parameter", alp.
We examine the application of our methodology using theoretical diffraction patterns computed for models of nanocrystals with a perfect crystal lattice and for grains with a two-phase, core-shell structure. We use the method for the analysis of X-ray and neutron experimental diffraction data of nanocrystalline diamond powders of 4, 6 and 12 nm in diameter.
The effects of an internal pressure and strain at the grain surface is discussed. This is based on the dependence of the alp values oil the diffraction vector Q and on the PDF analysis. It is shown, that the experimental results support well the concept of the two-phase structure of nanocrystalline diamond. Frequency analysis for modulation-enhanced powder diffraction. Periodic modulation of external conditions on a crystalline sample with a consequent analysis of periodic diffraction response has been recently proposed as a tool to enhance experimental sensitivity for minor structural changes.
Here the intensity distributions for both a linear and nonlinear structural response induced by a symmetric and periodic stimulus are analysed. The analysis is further extended for powder diffraction when an external perturbation changes not only the intensity of Bragg lines but also their positions. The derived results should serve as a basis for a quantitative modelling of modulation-enhanced diffraction data measured in real conditions.
Bile acid patterns in commercially available oxgall powders used for the evaluation of the bile tolerance ability of potential probiotics. This study aimed to analyze the bile acid patterns in commercially available oxgall powders used for evaluation of the bile tolerance ability of probiotic bacteria. Conjugated bile acids were profiled by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC , free bile acids were detected as their p-bromophenacyl ester derivatives using reversed-phase HPLC after extraction with acetic ether, and total bile acids were analyzed by enzymatic-colorimetric assay.
The results showed that 9 individual bile acids i. The content of total bile acid among the three oxgall powders was similar; however, the relative contents of the individual bile acids among these oxgall powders were significantly different P powder from Sigma-Aldrich was closer to human bile in the ratios of glycine-conjugated bile acids to taurine-conjugated bile acids, dihydroxy bile acids to trihydroxy bile acids, and free bile acids to conjugated bile acids than the other powders were.
It was concluded that the oxgall powder from Sigma-Aldrich should be used instead of those from Oxoid and BD Difco to evaluate the bile tolerance ability of probiotic bacteria as human bile model. Particle size analysis of amalgam powder and handpiece generated specimens.
The increasing interest in the elimination of amalgam particles from the dental waste DW stream, requires efficient devices to remove these particles. The major objective of this project was to perform a comparative evaluation of five basic methods of particle size analysis in terms of the instrument's ability to quantify the size distribution of the various components within the DW stream.
The analytical techniques chosen were image analysis via scanning electron microscopy, standard wire mesh sieves, X-ray sedigraphy, laser diffraction, and electrozone analysis. Each analytical method quantified the examined DW particle stream components.
However, X-ray sedigraphy, electrozone, and laser diffraction particle analyses provided similar results for determining particle distributions of DW samples. These three methods were able to more clearly quantify the properties of the examined powder and condensed amalgam samples. Furthermore, these methods indicated that a significant fraction of the DW stream contains particles less than 20 microm. The findings of this study indicated that the electrozone method is likely to be the most effective technique for quantifying the particle size distribution in the DW particle stream.
This method required a relative small volume of sample, was not affected by density, shape factors or optical properties, and measured a sufficient number of particles to provide a reliable representation of the particle size distribution curve. An HPLC-ELSD method with good specificity and good accuracy was used for the studies of fingerprint and quantification of multi-components for cattle bile powder. An ELSD was used with a nitrogen flow-rate of 2.
The average contents of glycocholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid were Beyond that, the preprocessing and pattern recognition analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of samples were applied with chemometric method. The results of this chemometric analysis indicated that the samples from market and self-made samples were different signally, and four regions were noteworthy due to their great impact with poor chromatographic signal.
All in one, because this HPLC-ELSD method was simple and accurate, it was suitable for the quality assessment and quality control of cattle bile powder and could be the technological base for its standard perfection. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder. Both nettle Urtica dioica and cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccus are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli E.
For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.
Particle characteristics and lung deposition patterns in a human airway replica of a dry powder formulation of polylactic acid produced using supercritical fluid technology. Polylactic acid PLA powders have been used as vector particles to carry pharmaceutical material. Drugs incorporated in the PLA powder can be retained in the lung for a longer period and may be more effective than free-form drugs.
A new formulation of L-PLA dry powder , which was easy to disperse in the air, was produced by using a supercritical technology. Electron microscopy analysis of the particles indicated that they were individual particles in bulk form and became aggregate particles after generation by the Turbuhaler. Aerodynamic particle size analysis using both an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer APS aerosol spectrometer and Andersen impactor showed that the aerodynamic size decreased as the flow rate in the Turbuhaler increased from Deposition patterns in the human respiratory tract were estimated using a realistic physical replica of human airways.
Deposition of the L-PLA was high In the lung region, the deposition totaled 7. As the flow rate increased, fewer aggregates were formed resulting in the smaller aerodynamic particles. As a result, more particles penetrated the oral airways and were available for deposition in the lung. Our results showed that L-PLA particles as manufactured by the supercritical technology could be used in a DPI that does not require the use of carrier particles to facilitate aerosol delivery.
Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders : personal care ingredients and emulsions. The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them.
Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy France developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel.
This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder.
Increased cytokine production by monocytes from human subjects who consumed grape powder was not mediated by differences in dietary intake patterns. We hypothesized that dietary grape powder increased the production of these cytokines by stimulated monocytes. To test this hypothesis, we used hour dietary recall data to determine if differences in dietary patterns played a role in increased cytokine production. No differences in total energy, protein, carbohydrates, or fat intake in the diets were observed between the grape powder and placebo intervention periods.
There were no differences observed in consumption of meats and poultry, eggs, fish, vegetables, grains, total dairy, or nuts and seeds by the participants between the 2 intervention periods. When participants received the grape powder , the recall data showed decreased intakes of butyric and capric acids P analysis showed that total energy, protein, carbohydrates, and fats, and individual fatty acids did not influence the production of cytokines by monocytes.
The path analysis indicated that the increased cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes from obese human subjects was caused by the grape powder and not mediated by differences in dietary intake. Published by Elsevier Inc. Analysis of ultrasonic effect on powder and application to radioactive sample compaction. The effect of ultrasound on powder compaction was analyzed. The decreasing in the friction coefficient of the powder sample is derived theoretically.
The compaction rate was improved by the ultrasound. We applied the effect to the compaction of environmental radioactive soil samples. In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed.
The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported.
It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture. Point pattern analysis of FIA data. Point pattern analysis is a branch of spatial statistics that quantifies the spatial distribution of points in two-dimensional space.
Point pattern analysis was conducted on stand stem-maps from FIA fixed-radius plots to explore point pattern analysis techniques and to determine the ability of pattern descriptions to describe stand attributes. Results indicate that the However, its role and effect in treating functional dyspepsia have not been well established. To assess the effect and safety of modified Chaihu Shugan powder for functional dyspepsia.
We searched the published and unpublished studies up to August Only RCTs of modified Chaihu Shugan powder with or without prokinetic drugs versus prokinetic drugs in the patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia were included. Twenty-two clinical trials involving participants were included. No serious adverse events were described in the included trials.
This meta- analysis showed that modified Chaihu Shugan powder alone or in combination with prokinetic drugs might be more effective than prokinetic drugs alone. However, with poor methodological quality, all the included trials were at high risk of bias. Further large-scale high-quality trials are required for assessment.
Thermal analysis and evolution of shape loss phenomena during polymer burnout in powder metal processing. Powder metallurgy technology involves manufacturing of net shape or near net shape components starting from metal powders. Polymers are used to provide lubrication during shaping and handling strength to the shaped component. After shaping, the polymers are removed from the shaped components by providing thermal energy to burnout the polymers. Polymer burnout is one of the most critical step in powder metal processing.
Improper design of the polymer burnout cycle will result in formation of defects, shape loss, or carbon contamination of the components. The effect of metal particles on polymer burnout and shape loss were addressed in the present research. The study addressing the effect of metal powders on polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that metal powders act to catalyze polymer burnout.
The effect of metal powders additions was studied by monitoring the onset temperature for polymer degradation and the temperature at which maximum rate of weight loss occurred from the TGA data. The catalytic behavior of the powders was verified by varying the particle size and shape of the L stainless powder. The addition of metal particles lowered the polymer burnout temperatures.
The onset temperature for burnout was found to be sensitive to the surface area of the metal particle as well as the polymer distribution. Powders with low surface area and uniform distribution of polymer showed a lower burnout temperature. The evolution of shape loss during polymer burnout was based on the hypothesis that shape loss occurs during the softening of the polymer and depends on the sequence of chemical bonding in the polymer during burnout.
In situ observation of shape loss was carried out on thin beams compacted from admixed powders of L stainless steel and 1 wt. To evaluate the effect of various magnesium stearate polymorphs using powder rheology and thermal analysis. The effects of magnesium stearate MgSt polymorphs-anhydrate MgSt-A , monohydrate MgSt-M , and dihydrate MgSt-D -on rheological properties of powders were evaluated using techniques such as atomic analysis and powder rheometry.
Additional evaluation was conducted using thermal analysis , micromeritics, and tableting forces. Powder rheometry was studied using permeability, basic flow energy BFE , density, and porosity analysis. Thermal conductivity and differential scanning calorimetric analysis of MgSt polymorphs were employed to elucidate MgSt effect on powder blends. The impact of MgSt polymorphs on compaction characteristics were analyzed via tablet compression forces.
Finally, the distribution of atomized magnesium Mg ions as a function of intensity was evaluated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS on tablets. The results from LIBS analysis indicated the dependency of the MgSt polymorphic forms on the atomized Mg ion intensity, with higher Mg ion intensity suggesting higher lubricity index i.
The results from lubricity index suggested the tendency of blends to over-lubricate based on the MgSt polymorphic forms. Finally, tableting forces suggested that MgSt-D and MgSt-A offered processing benefits such as lower ejection and compression forces, and that MgSt-M showed the most stable compression force in single or combined polymorphic ratios.
These results suggested that the initial moisture content, crystal arrangement, intra- and inter-molecular packing of the polymorphs defined their effects on the rheology of lubricated powders. Computer aided fringe pattern analysis.
The paper reviews the basic laws of fringe pattern interpretation. The different techniques that are currently utilized are presented using a common frame of reference stressing the fact that these techniques are different variations of the same basic principle.
Digital and analog techniques are discussed. Currently available hardware is presented and the relationships between hardware and the operations of pattern fringe processing are pointed out. Examples are given to illustrate the ideas discussed in the paper.
Analysis of powder samples available in small quantities has been carried out using metal-assisted gas plasma by utilizing a transversely excited atmospheric TEA CO2 laser. The powder was homogeneously mixed with Si grease, and the mixed powder was painted on a metal subtarget. When a TEA CO2 laser was directly focused on the metal subtarget at atmospheric pressure of He gas, a high-temperature He gas plasma was induced.
It is assumed that the powder particles were vaporized to be effectively atomized and excited in the gas plasma region. This method has been employed in the rapid analyses of elements in organic and inorganic powder samples present in small quantities. Detection of trace elements of Cr and Pb has been successfully made by using the supplement powder and loam soil, respectively. The determination of the energy values and the composition analysis of M rifle black powders.
The determination of the energy values, specifically the heat of combustion of various M black powders was the important part of the bullet efficiency investigations. The calorimetric bomb is commonly used for these determinations. Four M black powders from the different sources were used as samples for this research. The chemical compositions of carbon C , hydrogen H , nitrogen N and sulfer S have also been determined. The results indicated that carbon and nitrogen compositions of sample S1 shown the highest values and provided little differences with sample S2 while sample S3 and S4 shown the lowest carbon and nitrogen percentage composition.
The hydrogen composition of all samples was equally valued, however, only sample 3 and 4 displayed sulfur values while no sulfur values were detected from sample 1 and 2. From these results, the heat values and chemical composition of M black powders were characterized their sources and the energy values might be estimated from the amount of carbon and nitrogen in the black powders. Thus, it would be possible to use this determination analysis in the forensic investigation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits.
In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition.
The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Geophysical log analysis. As part of a multidisciplinary investigation designed to assess the implications of coal-bed methane development on water resources for the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene-age coal beds along a km east-west transect within the Tongue River drainage basin.
Analysis of geophysical logs obtained in these wells provides insight into the hydrostratigraphic characteristics of the coal and interbedded siliciclastic rocks and their possible interaction with the local stress field. Natural gamma and electrical resistivity logs were effective in distinguishing individual coal beds. Full-waveform sonic logs were used to determine elastic properties of the coal and an attendant estimate of aquifer storage is in reasonable agreement with that computed from a pumping test.
Inspection of magnetically oriented images of the borehole walls generated from both acoustic and optical televiewers and comparison with coal cores infer a face cleat orientation of approximately N33?? E, in close agreement with regional lineament patterns and the northeast trend of the nearby Tongue River. The local tectonic stress field in this physiographic province as inferred from a nearby earthquake denotes an oblique strike-slip faulting regime with dominant east-west compression and north-south extension.
These stress directions are coincident with those of the primary fracture sets identified from the televiewer logs and also with the principle axes of the drawdown ellipse produced from a complementary aquifer test, but oblique to apparent cleat orientation.
Consequently, examination of these geophysical logs within the context of local hydrologic characteristics indicates that transverse transmissivity anisotropy in these coals is predominantly controlled by bedding configuration and perhaps a mechanical response to the contemporary stress field rather than solely by cleat structure.
Direct analysis of herbal powders by pipette-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ESI-MS is widely used for analysis of solution samples. In this study, we developed pipette-tip ESI-MS, a technique that combines pipette tips with syringe and syringe pump, for direct analysis of herbal powders , another common form of samples. We demonstrated that various herbal powder samples, including herbal medicines and food samples, could be readily online extracted and analyzed using this technique.
Various powder samples, such as Rhizoma coptidis, lotus plumule, great burdock achene, black pepper, Panax ginseng, roasted coffee beans, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis and Fructus Schisandrae Sphenantherae, were analyzed using pipette-tip ESI-MS and quality mass spectra with stable and durable signals could be obtained. Both positive and negative ion modes were attempted and various compounds including amino acids, oligosaccharides, glycosides, alkaloids, organic acids, ginosensides, flavonoids and lignans could be detected.
Principal component analysis PCA based on the acquired mass spectra allowed rapid differentiation of closely related herbal species. All rights reserved. In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules.
By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder , and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder 's maturity in the Song Dynasty.
Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules.
Development of high performance liquid chromatography method for miconazole analysis in powder sample. A simple high performance liquid chromatography HPLC method has been developed in this study for the analysis of miconazole, an antifungal drug, in powder sample.
The present HPLC method is applicable for the determination of miconazole in the powder sample with a recovery of The developed HPLC method provides short analysis time, high reproducibility and high sensitivity. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices red pepper, garlic, ginger powder with luminescence analysis. For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers.
In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated 0, 1 and 10 kGy spice powders , such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis. A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace.
Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented.
These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern , and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other. Identification of a gamma-irradiated ingredient garlic powder in Korean barbeque sauce by thermoluminescence analysis. The sauce sample with nonirradiated garlic powder gave a background glow curve. After pasteurization of the samples containing the irradiated ingredient, TL glow intensity decreased but did not change its shape or temperature range.
As a result, the pasteurization of Barbeque sauces containing irradiated ingredients had reduced TL glow intensity, but the shape and temperature range of glow curve were still able to provide information required for confirming irradiation treatment. To monitor the irradiated food in international market, thermoluminescence TL analysis is considered most promising identification technique because of its sensitivity and long-term stability.
In this study the applicability of TL analysis to detect an irradiated ingredient garlic powder added in low quantity to a food matrix sauce was investigated. The effect of processing pasteurization on TL results was also evaluated. A structural investigation into the compaction behavior of pharmaceutical composites using powder X-ray diffraction and total scattering analysis. To use advanced powder X-ray diffraction PXRD to characterize the structure of anhydrous theophylline following compaction, alone, and as part of a binary mixture with either alpha-lactose monohydrate or microcrystalline cellulose.
Compacts formed from 1 pure theophylline and 2 each type of binary mixture were analyzed intact using PXRD. A novel mathematical technique was used to accurately separate multi-component diffraction patterns. The pair distribution function PDF of isolated theophylline diffraction data was employed to assess structural differences induced by consolidation and evaluated by principal components analysis PCA.
Simulated data suggest PDF dampening is attributable to molecular deviations from average crystalline position. Samples compacted at different pressures were identified and differentiated using PCA. Samples compacted at common pressures exhibited similar inter-atomic correlations, where excipient concentration factored in the analyses involving lactose.
Practical real-space structural analysis of PXRD data by PDF was accomplished for intact, compacted crystalline drug with and without excipient. PCA was used to compare multiple PDFs and successfully differentiated pattern changes consistent with compaction-induced disordering of theophylline as a single component and in the presence of another material. Characterization of monoclinic crystals in tablets by pattern -fitting procedure using X-ray powder diffraction data.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the monoclinic crystals in tablets by using X-ray powder diffraction data and to evaluate the deformation feature of crystals during compression. The monoclinic crystals of acetaminophen and benzoic acid were used as the samples. The observed X-ray diffraction intensities were fitted to the analytic expression, and the fitting parameters, such as the lattice parameters, the peak-width parameters, the preferred orientation parameter and peak asymmetric parameter were optimized by a non-linear least-squares procedure.
The Gauss and March distribution functions were used to correct the preferred orientation of crystallites in the tablet. The March function performed better in correcting the modification of diffraction intensity by preferred orientation of crystallites, suggesting that the crystallites in the tablets had fiber texture with axial orientation. Although a broadening of diffraction peaks was observed in acetaminophen tablets with an increase of compression pressure, little broadening was observed in the benzoic tablets.
These results suggest that "acetaminophen is a material consolidating by fragmentation of crystalline particles and benzoic acid is a material consolidating by plastic deformation then occurred rearrangement of molecules during compression".
A pattern -fitting procedure is the superior method for characterizing the crystalline drugs of monoclinic crystals in the tablets, as well as orthorhombic isoniazid and mannitol crystals reported in the previous paper. Practical soil analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy employing subtarget supported micro mesh as a powder sample holder. A practical alternative of sample preparation technique is proposed for direct powder analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS instead of the commonly adopted treatment of pelletizing the powder.
The resulted pellet is known to suffer from reduced sensitivity of emission. Besides, it may also give rise to interfering effect from the binder emission. We introduce in this report a more practical technique of using a subtarget supported micro mesh SSMM powder sample holder. A comparison with the emission spectra measured from the pelletized powder , the spectrum obtained using the SSMM sample holder shows distinctly superior spectral quality marked by the absence of matrix effect found in pelletized powder samples, and the much stronger intensity due to the more effective shock wave plasma induced thermal excitation process produced by the hard subtarget in the sample holder.
Repeating the measurement on a number of the standard soil samples of various Pb contents is shown to yield a linear calibration line with practically zero intercept and a detection limit of less than 10 ppm. We have thus demonstrated the viability of the proposed powder sample holder for the development of practical and quantitative powder analysis in the field.
Quantitative analysis of perfumes in talcum powder by using headspace sorptive extraction. Quantitative analysis of perfume dosage in talcum powder has been a challenge due to interference of the matrix and has so far not been widely reported. In this study, headspace sorptive extraction HSSE was validated as a solventless sample preparation method for the extraction and enrichment of perfume raw materials from talcum powder.
Sample enrichment is performed on a thick film of poly dimethylsiloxane PDMS coated onto a magnetic stir bar incorporated in a glass jacket. Sampling is done by placing the PDMS stir bar in the headspace vial by using a holder. The stir bar is then thermally desorbed online with capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Nevertheless, a relatively larger amount of extracting phase is coated on the stir bar as compared to SPME. Sample amount and extraction time were optimized in this study. The method has shown good repeatability with relative standard deviation no higher than The method was also successfully applied in the quantitative analysis of talcum powder spiked with perfume at different dosages. KGaA, Weinheim. Effectiveness of local vancomycin powder to decrease surgical site infections: a meta- analysis.
Some surgeons use systemic vancomycin to prevent surgical site infections SSIs , but patients who do not carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of SSIs when given vancomycin alone for intravenous prophylaxis. Applying vancomycin powder to the wound before closure could increase the local tissue vancomycin level without significant systemic levels.
However, the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder application for preventing SSIs has not been established. Our objective was to systematically review and evaluate studies on the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder for decreasing SSIs. Meta- analysis. We included observational studies, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials of patients undergoing surgical procedures that involved vancomycin powder application to surgical wounds, reported SSI rates, and had a comparison group that did not use local vancomycin powder.
The primary outcome was postoperative SSIs. The secondary outcomes included deep incisional SSIs and S. We ran the searches from inception on May 9, with no limits on date or language. After reviewing titles or abstracts and 22 articles in detail, we included 10 independent studies and used a random-effects model when pooling risk estimates to assess the effectiveness of local. Spectrochemical analysis of powdered biological samples using transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide laser plasma excitation.
The aim of this study was to develop a simple laser induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS method for quantitative elemental analysis of powdered biological materials based on laboratory prepared calibration samples. The analysis was done using ungated single pulse LIBS in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The material used for the analysis was a blue-green alga Spirulina, widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and also in a few biotechnological applications.
Analytical curves for Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr were constructed using laboratory produced matrix-matched calibration samples. Results confirm that, in respect to its sensitivity and precision, TEA CO2 laser based LIBS can be successfully applied for quantitative analysis of macro and micro-elements in algal samples.
The fact that nearly all classes of materials can be prepared as powders implies that the proposed method could be easily extended to a quantitative analysis of different kinds of materials, organic, biological or inorganic.
Anthrax screening was performed on-site using a ruggedized analytical pathogen identification device R. Turnaround time was approximately hours for either anthrax or UI. Between October 10, and October 11, , samples were analyzed. Of these, 57 were for anthrax screening only, 78 were for anthrax and UI, and 26 were for UI only. The only potential biological or chemical warfare agent identified cyanide was provided by law enforcement.
Rapid anthrax screening and identification of unknown substances at the scene are useful to prevent costly interruption of services and potential referral for medical evaluation. Spectrochemical analysis of powder using nm Nd-YAG laser-induced low-pressure plasma.
The applicability of spectrochemical analysis of minute amounts of powder samples was investigated using an ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser nm and low-pressure ambient air. A large variety of chemical powder samples of different composition were employed in the experiment. These included a mixture of copper II sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfide, and chromium III sulfate n-hydrate powders , baby powder , cosmetic powders , gold films, zinc supplement tablet, and muds and soils from different areas.
The powder samples were prepared by pulverizing the original samples to an average size of around 30 microm in order to trap them in the tiny micro holes created on the surface of the quartz subtarget. It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with low background, free from undesirable contamination by the subtarget elements and featuring ppm sensitivity. A further measurement revealed a linear calibration curve with zero intercept. These results clearly show the potential application of this technique for practical qualitative and quantitative spectrochemical analysis of powder samples in various fields of study and investigation.
Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications. The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. In addition, the calcium oxide CaO phase was found after the calcination of Powder A.
Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta- analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.
The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta- analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results.
Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.
Bloodstain pattern analysis --casework experience. The morphology of bloodstain distribution patterns at the crime scene carries vital information for a reconstruction of the events. Contrary to experimental work, case reports where the reconstruction has been verified have rarely been published. This is the reason why a series of four illustrative cases is presented where bloodstain pattern analysis at the crime scene made a reconstruction of the events possible and where this reconstruction was later verified by a confession of the offender.
The cases include various types of bloodstains such as contact and smear stains, drop stains, arterial blood spatter and splash stains from both impact and cast-off pattern. Problems frequently encountered in practical casework are addressed, such as unfavourable environmental conditions or combinations of different bloodstain patterns. It is also demonstrated that the analysis of bloodstain morphology can support individualisation of stains by directing the selection of a limited number of stains from a complex pattern for DNA analysis.
The complexity of real situations suggests a step-by-step approach starting with a comprehensive view of the overall picture. This is followed by a differentiation and analysis of single bloodstain patterns and a search for informative details. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia. Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia.
While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F, was also a depleted uranium powder. While aliquoting NSR-F for analysis , a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of U and U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history.
The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium NU fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.
Quantitative analysis of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets by pattern -fitting procedure using X-ray diffraction pattern. A pattern -fitting procedure using an X-ray diffraction pattern was applied to the quantitative analysis of binary system of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets. Tablets were prepared under various compression pressures using a direct compression method with various compositions of INH and MAN.
Assuming that X-ray diffraction pattern of INH-MAN system consists of diffraction intensities from respective crystals, observed diffraction intensities were fitted to analytic expression based on X-ray diffraction theory and separated into two intensities from INH and MAN crystals by a nonlinear least-squares procedure. The correction parameter including all the factors that are beyond experimental control was required for quantitative analysis without calibration curve.
Further, certain characteristics of the crystals in the tablets, such as the preferred orientation, size of crystallite, and lattice disorder were determined simultaneously. This method can be adopted to analyze compounds whose crystal structures are known. It is a potentially powerful tool for the quantitative phase analysis and characterization of crystals in tablets and powders using X-ray diffraction patterns. Copyright Elsevier B. Understanding deformation mechanisms during powder compaction using principal component analysis of compression data.
Principal component analysis PCA was applied to pharmaceutical powder compaction. Multivariate analysis of the compression data was carried out using PCA. The first principal component PC1 showed loadings for the solid fraction and work values that agreed with changes in the relative significance of plastic deformation to consolidation at different pressures. The PC1 scores showed the same rank order as the relative plasticity ranking derived from the literature for common pharmaceutical materials.
The utility of PC1 in understanding deformation was extended to binary mixtures using a subset of the original materials. Combinations of brittle and plastic materials were characterized using the PCA method. The relationships between PC1 scores and the weight fractions of the mixtures were typically linear showing ideal mixing in their deformation behaviors. The mixture consisting of two plastic materials was the only combination to show a consistent positive deviation from ideality.
The application of PCA to solid fraction and mechanical work data appears to be an effective means of predicting deformation behavior during compaction of simple powder mixtures.
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